試用五首歌詞說服你:Bob Dylan真的可以成為文學獎得主

文:Practical Dinosaur、Chameleon

Bob Dylan成為2016年諾貝爾文學獎得主,亦是首位音樂人獲得此榮譽,引起一陣騷動。其實這位傳奇唱作音樂家,不但早有奧斯卡、格林美、金球獎等加身,亦在搖滾名人堂佔一席位,他更早於2008年已憑歌詞有「非凡的詩意」而獲頒普立茲獎,亦出版過詩集和多本著作。

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五十四年的創作生涯中,Bob Dylan從抱著木結他唱民謠出道,六十年代被貼上抗議歌手標籤,後來背上電結他而被罵個狗血淋頭,又唱過Gospel,後來傳聞出了車禍而消聲匿跡一段日子,唱腔變幻莫測也不消說。但不論喜愛哪個時期的他,相信沒有樂迷會反對,他筆下歌詞確富詩意與想像力,美麗而且精準。雖然,永不解釋歌詞含意也是他的特色。

今天,「Bob Dylan」終於不止是諾貝爾傳聞名單上的名字,我們選出以下五首歌(排名不分先後),嘗試只用歌詞說服你,文學獎?他可以!

(由於他愛演唱不同版本,以下歌詞來自官方網站。)

1975年的Bob Dylan把臉塗白,演唱Tangled Up In Blue。攝:Ken Regan

  • Tangled Up In Blue,《Blood on the Tracks》(1975)

Don’t know how it all got startedI don’t know what they’re doin’ with their lives
But me, I’m still on the road
Headin’ for another joint
We always did feel the same
We just saw it from a different point of view
Tangled up in blue

看似講述一段歷時甚久的關係,簡單來說就是主角東跑西跑,當上廚師又隱居過,風流之後,始終念念不忘舊愛失婚婦人。但歌詞中時空異常跳躍,不順序的情節,拼貼過去、現在與未來像一個頭腦混亂的中年人回憶過去。有人形容Bob Dylan當時研究「立體派」藝術,效法其把不同視點角度共冶一爐的手法。

  • I Shall Be Released,1967

They say ev’rything can be replaced
Yet ev’ry distance is not near
So I remember ev’ry face
Of ev’ry man who put me here
I see my light come shining
From the west unto the east
Any day now, any day now
I shall be released

歌詞表面上是囚犯從第一身角度,描寫獄中被剝奪自由的心情。歌詞用字簡單,不但旋律編曲甚有基督教詩歌味道,「得釋放」亦有耶穌釘十架後復活,赦免世人罪疚的象徵。加上「牢籠」放在歌曲面世的六十年代,卻可視作面對社會各種不公義,仍看到一線希望,深信被囚禁的人總會得釋放。

  • A Hard Rain’s Gonna Fall,《The Freewheelin’ Bob Dylan》(1962)

    Where hunger is ugly, where souls are forgotten
    Where black is the color, where none is the number
    And I’ll tell it and think it and speak it and breathe it
    And reflect it from the mountain so all souls can see it
    Then I’ll stand on the ocean until I start sinkin’
    But I’ll know my song well before I start singin’
    And it’s a hard, it’s a hard, it’s a hard, it’s a hard
    It’s a hard rain’s a-gonna fall

    野狼徘徊在初生嬰兒附近、淌著血的枯枝、飢餓的人等頹垣敗瓦意象,貫穿反覆出現的「親愛的你會怎麼做」問句,令很多人詮釋為關於環保、核彈等議題的抗議歌曲,當然Dylan一一否認。他在六十年代的歌詞受「垮掉一代」(Beat Generation)影響甚深,而1961年結交的好友、詩人Allen Ginsberg聽完這首歌更哭了,說從裡面看到下一個時代接班人:「Cause it seemed that the torch had been passed to another generation. 」

    Photo of Bob Dylan

    1965年的Bob Dylan。(圖:Wired

  • Desolation Row,《Highway 61 Revisited》(1965)

    Now the moon is almost hidden
    The stars are beginning to hide
    The fortune-telling lady
    Has even taken all her things inside
    All except for Cain and Abel
    And the hunchback of Notre Dame
    Everybody is making love
    Or else expecting rain
    And the Good Samaritan, he’s dressing
    He’s getting ready for the show
    He’s going to the carnival tonight On Desolation Row

    不單時長十一分鐘,這首歌曲的野心還可見於歌詞引用大量歷史、聖經,甚至虛構的人物角色,從愛恩斯坦到艾略特,還有該隱、羅密歐、灰姑娘……將典故融合再造成一場魔幻的狂歡派對,但混亂中又隱約開放予有關種族、人權等社會議題的詮釋。

  • Ballad In Plain D,《Another Side of Bob Dylan》(1964)

    And so it did happen like it could have been foreseen
    The timeless explosion of fantasy’s dream
    At the peak of the night, the king and the queen
    Tumbled all down into pieces

    雖然Bob Dylan曾公開表示,非常後悔寫下這首歌,但無疑是他當時複雜情緒的證明。悔恨、憤怒、空虛……歌詞少見的直指與前女友 Suze Rotolo及其家人關係破裂的經過,但仍可找到精警的比喻與描寫。 歌曲最後一個Verse也道出了Dylan當時悲觀的人生觀:縱使飛鳥似是自由自在地飛翔,但都是被關在天空內。

  • Sad Eyed Lady of the Lowlands,《Blonde On Blonde》(1966)

    With your silhouette when the sunlight dims
    Into your eyes where the moonlight swims
    And your matchbook songs and your gypsy hymns
    Who among them would try to impress you?
    Sad-eyed lady of the lowlands

    大部份篇幅都在形容主角「Sad Eyed Lady」的臉容與性格,看似毫無關連的詞彙堆砌成意識流般的句子,老實說,單是第一句「With your mercury mouth in the missionary times」已叫人摸不著頭腦。這首歌獲得兩極評價,但廣大歌迷、研究者仍孜孜不倦分析著歌詞。

    或許這是Bob Dylan的掩眼法,但我們仍被他的詩意,甚至是難以理解的符號迷倒,可能純粹因為,在他數百首作品中,總有那麼一首,即使歌詞晦澀隱約而無法解說,卻又恰好對上了我們複雜的腦袋與心情。

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